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Inclusions (Ceramic)

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Ceramic inclusions present as missing areas of metal in the casting; appearing as small, round, irregular or angular craters, depressions or cavities of various sizes; typically superficial with traces of ceramic and refractory material. This defect indicates that something is present in the mold cavity that prevents the casting from fully filling to the shell; typically ceramic shell debris, bits of the pour cup, or the inner mold surface broke off into the molten metal during pouring and were left behind on the casting surface. 

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The causes of this defect are evident in the wax, shell and other portions of the process. To cure these causes, R&R recommends taking the following actions.